Description: An apparent bottom of an S is seen below the D.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Strong secondary curve of S to the south. Obverse Stage B: Secondary curve of S is weaker. Obverse Stage C: Weaker secondary S below D. Reverse Stage A: Light die scratch N to S between dot and P. Reverse Stage B: Heavy die crack ENE from rim at 8:00. Reverse Stage C: Stage A die scratch abraded away.
Submitted By: Stage A: Paul Funaiole, Stage B: John Bordner, Stage C: Marvin D. King
Description: A very strong S can be seen above and through the middle of the D.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: A short die scratch runs north from the upper right 9. A die scratch runs from SSW to NNE to the right of the Y in LIBERTY. The secondary mint mark shows a strong upper serif. Obverse Stage B: The Stage A die scratches are abraded away. A short north to south die scratch can be found between the rim and the N of IN. Obverse Stage C: The die scratch at the N has been abraded away. The secondary mint mark is weak showing only remnants of the upper curve. Reverse Stage A: Two die scratches can be found between the top of the left wheat ear and the E in EPU. A short die gouge runs SW from the center left of the second S in STATES. A small die gouge can be found below the CA in AMERICA. Reverse Stage B: None noted. Reverse Stage C: None noted.
Description: An S can be seen to the left, in the middle, and below the bottom of the D.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Die scratch NW to SE below 19. Die scratches SSE from underside of horizontal bar of T in LIBERTY. Weak die crack NE from rim to right of designer’s initials. Obverse Stage B: Strong die scratches curve from NE to south to tight of chin. Die crack NW from rim left of designer’s initials. Stage A die crack is stronger. Downward curving die crack in hair between GOD and WE. Reverse Stage A: Light die scratches SW from T in CENT. Reverse Stage B: New Reverse. Die scratches through upper portion of left wheat stem. Strong die scratch from WSW to ENE above and between the ends of the wheat stems.
Description: A D mint mark can be seen centered under the lower portion of the S.
Die Markers: Obverse: Many north to south die scratches above date, to right of beard, through neck, below ear, and through LIBERTY. Die gouges at vest fold and lapel fold. Reverse: Many small die scratches between left wheat stalk, C of CENT, UN of UNITED, and O in OF. Many small die scratches between right wheat stalk, T of CENT, and ES of STATES.
Description: What was believed to be a D over an S is now listed in both the Wexler RPM Files and the Crawford RPM Files as an RPM (D/D/D horizontal and south).
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Light NW to SE die scratches top of 9. Obverse Stage B: Die scratches at 9 weaker. Weak die crack high above designer’s initials. Weak die crack north on jacket from left of V in designer’s initials. Obverse Stage C: Die scratches gone. Die cracks stronger. Reverse Stage A: Heavy die chips vertical bar T in CENT. Die break between rim and right wheat at about 3:30. Reverse Stage B: Lathe gouge through top of UNUM. NW to SE die scratch inside first A in AMERICA. Reverse Stage C: Lathe gouge abraded away. Depression to lower right of T in CENT.
Comments: Research by John Bordner, Billy G. Crawford, and John A. Wexler has led to the conclusion that this variety is a multiple punched D mint mark rather than a D/S mint mark as previously believed. Not all die variety specialists are in agreement. CONECA and Coppercoins still list the variety as an OMM (D/S). You need to judge and decide for yourself.
This image from Billy G. Crawford shows the key highpoints of what has been thought to be an underlying S mint mark. The marking at the lower left arrow is now believed to be part of an underlying D to the south. The top left arrow and the raised area inside the D are believed to be parts of an underlying horizontal D mint mark. The lower center and lower right arrows are consistent with either the horizontal D or the D to the south as will be seen in the following overlays from Billy G. Crawford.
This overlay from Billy G. Crawford shows a horizontal D overlay. Note how the highpoints of the upper left arrow and the two lower right arrows are a perfect match for what is seen on the supposed S. The lower left arrow also appears to match, but the shape is not right for what is seen at the point without the overlay. The element at the lower left arrow is believed to be part of an additional D punched to the south.
This overlay from Billy G. Crawford attempts to align an S with the key points indicated by arrows on the supposed D/S. Note that the bottom left and bottom right arrows do not coincide with the high points of the S.
Moving the S to coincide with the lower left and lower right arrows moves the S out of alignment with the upper left and lower center arrows.
This overlay from Billy G. Crawford shows how the bottom left arrow in the previous photos (#1 in this photo) matches a D/D South
1951-D 1¢ OMM #2 Relisted as a Wexler RPM Variety
Description: What was believed to be a D over an S is now listed in both the Wexler RPM Files and the Crawford RPM Files as an RPM (D/D south).
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Die gouge right center of R in LIBERTY. Obverse Stage B: Die crack arching over designer’s initials. Obverse Stage C: Die crack is slightly stronger. Reverse Stage A: Die scratch NNE from upper right stem. Reverse Stage B: Die scratch is weak. Reverse Stage C: Die chips lower right side of T in CENT.
Comments: This variety has an interesting history. It was first listed as an RPM variety (RPM #15) in the original The RPM Book by John A. Wexler and Tom Miller which was published in 1983. In this reference it was described as a D/D South. It first appeared listed as an OMM variety in The RPM Book Second Edition: Lincoln Cents which was published by CONECA in 1997. Along with the lower part of the secondary mint mark seen below the main mint mark, there are remnants of the secondary mint mark just below the top of the primary D. Overlays show that a D to the south matches all parts of the secondary D while overlays of an S mint mark do not match all of the parts of the secondary mint mark. It is still listed as an OMM by CONECA and Coppercoins.
This image courtesy of Billy G. Crawford shows keys points of the underlying mint mark that some believe to be an S mint mark.
This overlay from Billy G. Crawford shows that the secondary mint mark aligns perfectly with a D/D South.
1951-D 1¢ WOMM-001 In The Process Of Re-evaluation
Description: The variety appears to show a D/S South.
Die Markers: Obverse: Long die scratch SSW from bottom of 1st one through lower right vest. Reverse: Long die chip on vertical bar of T in CENT. Die scratch SSE from bottom of D in UNITED.
Submitted By: Brian Ribar
Cross References: None known
Comments: This variety, formerly listed as WOMM-003, is only listed in the Wexler Die Variety Files. Now that WOMM-001 and WOMM-002 for this date have been refuted, a closer look will have to be taken at WOMM-003 to see whether or not it will stand up to the overlay tests that the first two OMM varieties failed.
1952-D 1¢ OMM #1 Relisted as a Wexler RPM Variety
Description: What is believed by some to be the lower curve of an S can be found below the D. I believe it to be a D/D Southeast.
Die Markers: Obverse: Many small die scratches under the chin and between the nose and chin. Reverse: None noted.
Comments: As there are no remnants of the lower right curve of the S, it is difficult to determine whether or not the secondary image is a D or an S. Overlays by Kevin Flynn indicate that the remnants more closely match a secondary D as opposed to an S. The recent study of a BU EDS specimen supports the conclusion of a D/D rather than a D/S. The assignment of a Wexler RPM number is pending.
1956-D 1¢ WOMM-001
Description: An apparent S mint mark shows NE of the D.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Heavy die scratches SW to NE throughout the obverse. Obverse Stage B: Few Stage A scratches remain. New die scratches run SSW to NNE with a strong scratch below the chin and another from the top of the beard. Obverse Stage C: Few die scratches remain. Reverse Stage A: Die chip on top right T of CENT. Die scratch NW from top right N of CENT. Reverse Stage B: Die chip on T of CENT is larger. Die scratch from top of N is gone and top of N in CENT is extremely weak from heavy abrading. X-shaped die scratches below 1st A in AMERICA. Reverse Stage C: Stage B die scratches are gone. Large die break in upper left wheat grains.
Comments: This variety is accepted as an OMM in the Wexler Die Variety Files as well as in the Coppercoins Files. The CONECA Files list this one as an RPM variety rather than an OMM variety. They see it as a D/D East. In the Wexler Files we believe that the S mint mark was punched more deeply into the die than the abrasion die scratches. As the die scratches wore away, the remnants of the S mint mark became more visible as the die scratches no longer masked the mint mark. A Stage C specimen of the variety found by Bill Affanato shows a nearly complete S mint mark outline. Stage B specimens which still have a large number of die scratches do show a significant amount of the S mint mark when the coin is tilted in the light at the proper angle. The following photos show both a Stage B specimen and a Stage C specimen. We urge the readers to study the photos carefully and come to their own conclusions as to whether this is indeed an OMM or merely an RPM and then base any decisions on whether or not to purchase a specimen based on those conclusions. Prices for the variety are on the lower side and specimens can be obtained for what one would normally expect to pay for an RPM variety.
1956-D 1¢ WDMM-001
Description: An S punch can be found between the lower 1 and 9 of the date.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: Light die scratch from midpoint of forehead NNW to front of hair. Short east to west die scratch above upper lip and nose extending into field. Die scratch connecting left side horizontal bar of last T in TRUST to lower vertical bar on left side and a short die scratch ESE from right center of vertical bar. Obverse Stage B: Die scratch from bottom center of mint mark south to tip of bust.Obverse Stage C: Stage A markers weaker. Scratch from mint mark is gone. Obverse Stage D: All markers gone except a weak stage A scratch from the forehead to the hair. Obverse Stage E: Die crack SE from center of shoulder turning ESE toward bust. Reverse Stage A: NNE to SSW die scratches strongest along O of ONE, C of CENT and U of UNITED. Two long die scratches forming an X between left wheat tip, the rim, and E of EPU.Reverse Stage C: Light, short, east to west die crack at upper left corner of E in ONE. Stage A & B markers weak. Reverse Stage D: Only faint traces of former markers present. Heavy abrasion through NIT of UNITED with new NW to SE die scratches in that area. Reverse Stage E: Die scratches at NIT of AMERICA abraded away. Heavy abrasion marks at the A and 2nd T of STATES.
Comments: This variety is listed in all of the leading die variety files except for the files maintained by CONECA. CONECA recently delisted the variety stating that “at best this variety was the upper loop of an inverted S punch.” A specimen recently submitted by Hartley G. Cole shows a nearly complete S mint mark between the lower 1 and 9. Later states show only a partial S.
1980-D 1¢ WDMM-001 Deleted From The Wexler Files
Description: What appeared to be an S mint mark is located between the D mint mark and the 8.
Die Markers: Obverse Stage A: NE to SW die scratch in field below RT of LIBERTY. NE to SW die scratches at 1 and 9. Obverse Stage B: Scratches below LIBERTY weaker. Scratches at date abraded away. Obverse Stage C: Die gouge (dot) in field east of forehead. Reverse Stage A: NNW die scratches below M of UNUM. Reverse Stage B: Stage A scratches abraded away. Weak SSW die scratch from left center of 11th column. Reverse Stage C: Light die crack left base to rim on the left side. Die cracks on 12th column with large chip.
Comments: Gary Darlington submitted an early die state specimen that showed the S to be indentations in the die and not a raised mint mark. Later abrading created the illusion of an S mint mark.
1981-D 1¢ WDMM-001
Description: An apparent S mint mark can be found north of the D mint mark.
Die Markers: Obverse: Die scratch from inside lower right G of GOD NW into the field. Reverse: Die gouge on upper side of slanted bar of N in CENT almost to junction of right vertical bar. Die gouge in field east of center of T in CENT.
Submitted By: Brian Allen
Cross References: None known
Comments: In view of the debunking of 1980-D 1¢ WDMM-001, it is likely that more study will go into this variety to make sure it does have an S mint mark and not a form of die damage like that seen on the debunked 1980-D variety. An early die state will be needed for such a study.